The article is about the development of cooperative pressure groups in the ČSFR in the period 1990-1992. The author describes the organization and development of the programmes of these groups. The article includes the demands of cooperative groups, their methods of enforcing these demands, and the success or failure of these methods.
The beginning of this article deals with the reasons for citizens’ criticism of the financing of political parties. The next part is concerned with the influences that cause particular models of financing. The author explains the basic principles of financing: especially the principles of equality, freedom and political competition. The forms of financing are compared with the examples of European states. The last part of the article contains the application of this general knowledge to the situation in the Czech Republic.
Political parties, financing, Czech Republic, Europe
The article deals with the basic theories of human rights. In the first part the author characterises the middle-class theory, the theories between world wars, the theory of values, the institutional theory and the democratic theory of fundamental rights. The author explains in greater detail the functions of fundamental rights in the democratic legal slate. Special attention is focused on the so-called horizontal impact of fundamental rights (Drittwirkung).
Fundamentals rights, human rights, conceptions, development, drittwirkung
The author tries to answer in his contribution the question, are Churches from the point of view of contemporary political science only pressure groups or do they represent another type of organisation in the political system. At first he shows the complicity and the insufficiency of the social scientific description of Churches as institutions and demonstrates the limits of such an approach. Then he examines how the Churches are from the point of view of general definitions classifiable as pressure groups and which criteria of typology of organised interests are applicable to the classification of Churches. The author then demonstrates the contradictions and the theoretical and practical problems that originate from the classification of the Church as a pressure group. In the end of his contribution the author explains in detail the differences between Churches and pressure groups and proves that it is necessary to consider the Church to be a specific type of organisation.
On November 8, 1994, American voters elected all 435 members of the House of Representatives, 35 senators, and 36 governors. Moreover, in a number of states they voted on a series of resolutions that would have a varied effect on their further political, economic, and social evolution. The elections took place in the middle of President Clinton’s first term in office. In the off year elections the presidential party, as a rule, tends to lose seats in both houses of Congress. This essay explores the pre-election public opinion of the policies of the Clinton Administration and the performance of the Democratic Congress, and the dissonance between their image and achievements. The Republican electoral campaign, largely guided by the so-called “Contract with America”, succeeded in translating public discontent and angst into an electoral victory which gave the party control of both houses of Congress for the first time since the Truman Administration, a significant increase in Republican governorships, and control of additional state houses. Pre-election public opinion polls and exit polls indicate the shift in the voters’ preferences toward the Republican party. In a two-party system even a slight shift tends to exaggerate the number of seats won by the victorious party. The results of the 1994 elections pose the question whether a fundamental change has taken place in the distribution of voters’ preferences and partisan self-identification, which would be projected into long cycles of one party’s dominance over the other, or whether the United States is only at the beginning of short-term oscillations between Democratic and Republican majorities.
USA, elections, 1994, house of representatives, senate, governor