After the legislative elections in 1993 the form of the Polish party system had changed. The changes in the electoral system (electoral tresholds were created, constituencies became smaller and their number increased, the D’Hondt system of seat allocation was set in function) caused modifications in party system fragmentation. Poland went from extreme pluralism to limited pluralism. The number of political groups represented in Sejm fell from 29 to 6. Both the index of party system fragmentation and index of effective number of parties went down. As the result stable governmental coalition was created, that could rely itself (in Sejm) on the real parliamentary majority. Political situation had been stabilized. Two phenomena were typical for Polish political life. It was on one hand the totally crushed Right and on the other hand unity in the consolidated Left. The whole period from 1993 to 1997 (government of SLD-PSL) was characterized by hard efforts of consolidation of the Right. The result, finally, was a creation of AWS - electoral bloc of rightist political groups.
NATO is a collective defence type of organization. It is a type of organization that is suitable for eliminating of military risks that threaten its member states. After the end of the bipolarity the Alliance is undergoing a process of transformation that does not go beyond the frame of an organization of collective defence. Because the process of NATO transformation is limited to this type of organization its member states will have to find other instruments to eliminate non-military risks. By entering NATO the countries of Central and Eastern Europe will obtain a guarantee that Munich, Jalta, Budapest or Prague will not be repeated, but NATO can not give them any guarantee that Cernobyl will not be repeated.
The research of political programmes is a specific and important branch of the political science. Political programmes can be divided into governmental programmes (dimension policy) and into programmes of the political parties (dimension politics). In European democracies parties have long term programmes, action programmes, electoral programmes and governmental statements. The following ideological dimensions are present in many party systems: socioeconomic, religious, cultural-ethnic, urban-rural, regime support, foreign policy and post-materialism. In the Czech Republic the political parties have “standardized” their programmatic in accordance with the theoretical models of the western countries. Here the socioeconomic dimension is the most important.
This article deals with a relation of law and ethics, namely from the Kant’s view of relations between legitimacy and legality. Author makes clear distinction of both terms: legality, which is linked to law emphasizes validity of laws; and legitimacy, which is linked with ethics and emphasizing validity of values. The Kant’s practical philosophy with its basic law of categorical imperative establishes both internal and international legislation on ethical principles. Author deals separately with a term of freedom which has to be guaranteed through law, for the cause of both ethics and law lies in the idea of human authonomy. Relation between legality and legitimacy is in Kant’s works characterized as a separate, where the legality represents a foundation of legitimacy and not vice versa.