The paper seeks to reflect upon the heuristic construction of moderate pluralism and its elaboration in the works of Giovanni Sartori, with some regard to the conceptions of Klaus von Beyme and Daniel-Louis Seiler. It argues that the identification of the limited multi-party format (limited pluralism) have much less discriminatory potential, than Sartori supposed and admitted originally, A serious problem with the Sartorian notion of limited pluralism and/or moderate pluralism consists in the fact that mechanical predispositions of multi-party formats have been discussed in a too reductive way. An open and more sophisticated prospective is needed to be able to analyze and classify effectively distinct kinds of non-polarized multi-party arrangements. However, the Sartorian concept of moderate pluralism should not be abandoned in favour of any eclectic construction deprived of a descriptive and heuristic capacity. It is necessary to try to conceptualize moderate multipartism in a new way within a sophisticated theoretical framework.
Multipartism, multi-polarity, sartori, von beyme, seiler
The article deals with the role of the Military Intelligence in the evolution of the Czechoslovak Republic after 1945. The author draws from historical sources evidence that this organization was connected with NKVD in person, its organizational structure was based on regulations of The Red Army and commanded great sums of powers. Its members and leadership was created especially by members of the KSČ and this party started to control the Military Intelligence after that in fact.
Military inteligence, interior ministry, communist party, czechoslovakia, NKVD, KSČ
This article analyzes some problems related to the financing policy of the political parties. The beginning of the article explains the influences and views concerned with the financing of the political parties. The next part of the article may be divided into the state (public) and private sources. The author explains some practised connotations, laws legislations, problems check and comparations to the European standards. The last part of the article contains the today's financial situation of the Czech political parties and their rights and duties in as applied to the Czech legal and political parties.
The basic question the article is trying to solve is whether the system of proportional representation in the Czech Republic is able to ensure a stable government. The shortages of the existing voting system are summarised in the first part. At the same time the main problems which should be solved by the new voting system are indicated there. The second part brings a short theoretical excursion into some chosen techniques of proportional election representation used subsequently in this article.
The main part of the article is devoted to the analysis and modelling of the election results for the House of Deputies in 1996. There are combined different methods of computation with constituencies of different sizes. Each of these combinations is used for theoretical computation of election results of 1996. In this way is won a survey showing how different methods of computation would manifest themselves in the Czech party system in constituencies of different sizes.
In the following part are chosen four combinations which would be acceptable for the Czech Republic and would with great probability be able to ensure a stable government. They are compared among themselves in detail and one among them is chosen which would probably be the best suited for the change of the accepted voting system.
The article is not a closed study. It presupposes further similar research into the results of June election of 1998. At the very conclusion are indicated guidelines of research which were left out in this work due to its limited extent and which would need further research.
The author of the present study deals with the contemporary problems of the presence of the Russian minority in Baltic states (especially in Latvia and Estonia). The study concentrates on both the actual (demographic) and legal aspects of this phenomenon which complicate not only the bilateral relations between Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and the Russian Federation but also the signing up of these states to the Euroatlantic structures.
The study contains the analysis of constitutions and other laws regulating the rights of national minorities and granting the citizenship in these countries. The conditions and the criteria prescribed in the legal regulations mean that most of the Russian inhabitants might become “scond cathegory” residents what is contrastive to their number in some areas (e. g. approximately 95% Russian speaking inhabitants in Narva).
The author comes to the conclusion that there is no simple solution; the governments of Baltic states should comply with international law; the Russian minority, on the other hand, cannot conduct as a fifth column of the Russian Federation.
Russian federation, baltic states, minority, fifth column, lithuania, latvia, estonia
This paper presents a survey of the debate between the “social left” and the “cultural left” which has taken place in the American radical theory in the 1990s. It introduces the main terms and issues of the debate on the example of the controversy between N. Fraser and I. M. Young. For Fraser Young represents overestimation of the cultural politics which stresses the cultural causes of the oppression at the cost of underestimation of the oppression rooted in the economy. In the opposition to this unilaterality, Fraser wants to integrate into one theoretical framework both the cultural struggle for recognition, and the socialist struggle for redistribution.