This paper tries to answer the question what is the cause of political instability in the Czech Republic. The electoral system used in the Czech Republic has high proportionate effect (the Hagenbach-Bischoff system of seat allocation is combined with large constituencies). Is this the main cause of political instability (I mean the problems with creating governmental coalition)? The index of party system fragmentation (D. Rae), index of effective number of parties (M. Laakso, R. Taagepera) and index of aggregation (L. Mayer) show us that fragmentation of Czech Parliament is not extremely high. The values of these indexes are not much higher than the average in Western Europe. The main cause of political instability in the Czech Republic seems to lie in large polarization of Czech party system. There are many causes of this high polarization of party system: existency of strong antisystem opposition among the Parliament parties, the character and position of small Parliament parties and low level of political culture in the Czech Republic. This resulted in 1996 in the creation of the minority government. In 1998 the two main political parties signed the contract which de facto means a rise of coalition of these two parties. The situation when the main political competitors create a coalition could be dangerous for the party system because it can enhance its polarization.
Electoral system, czech republic, political instability, index, party system, fragmentation
This article, called “The Stability of Government in the Constitutional System of Czech Republic”, is focused on the relationship between the House of Deputies, Government and the President. This relationship is described, politically analyzed and compared to other parliamentary systems of the European Union. The outcome of this analysis is that there exists two similar ways of government stabilisation: firstly, informal and coordinated steps by the Chairman of the House of Deputies and by the President, and secondly, to enact a constructive vote of non-confidence.
Government stability, constitutional system, Czech Republic
The article describes development of Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), characterizes separate stages of its existence and points out to some important, respectively specific events in its actions and history. The article primarily deals with the programme documents which embody its worldview and give expression to its ideologic background; it also explores particular opinions that are mentioned in the documents. In the second part the authors states data concerning the number of party members and explicate the organizational structure of the party and its internal workings as well. In the final part the readers have possibility to find information on the party electorate, its preferences and opinions on the party politics and policies.
ODA, civic Democratic aliance, development, party electorate, party politics
A number of countries, both new democracies and established democratic polities, have recently adopted mixed electoral system. There is an attempt to mix the positive features of political accountability in single member districts and PE’s proportional qualities.
This essay concentrates on the mixed electoral system as a specific electoral model alongside of the majoritarian and PR ones. It is defined by its mechanics involving both PR and plurality or majority. Two basic forms of hybrids are identified: “correction” (Germany, New Zealand, Italy) and “superposition” (Japan). Also “supermixed” system (Hungary) as a combination of the previous forms is mentioned. Then several features and intricacies of the mixed electoral system are discussed: complexity, proportionality, strategic voting, dual status of PR and majoritarian Members, the relative balance between PR and majoritarian allocated seats and so on.
The article analyses the situation of Jewish minority in Poland, the Polish-Jewish relationships and Polish antisemitism. The beginning of the article describes development of Jewish minority and the roots of problems with Poles. The main pare of the article analyses the reasons of pogroms, Jewish emigration and living conditions of Jews after World War II. The author explains the opinions and attitudes of Communist party, Polish society, Political opposition and the Catholic church. The important years in Polish history (1956 and 196S) are connected with their consequences for Jews. The last part of the article answeres the question, whether antisemitism is possible without Jews.
Jews, Poland, minority, antisemitism, communist party