The renewal of Hungary’s multi-party system started in 1988-1989 with founding opposition movements and with their legalisation by Act no. XXXIII of 1989 on political parties. Not only the activities of opposition movements/parties (their role in the National Round-Table negotiations) were decisive in the change of regime, but also the inside development in the reformers-dominated Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party. A result of this process was the possibility for Hungarian voters of 1990 not only to vote for or against the socialist regime, but to choose between more ideologically differentiated parties. Both in the 1990 and in the 1994 elections the same six parties got to the parliament, and only a partial correction on the right had place in 1998. Nevertheless, behind the stability of party system there is a considerable volatility of voters' preferences, reflected by the changing inter-party power relations. The Gungarian election system has been of big importance in the stabilization of a relatively small number of relevant political parties.
Three main splits divide the Gungarian party system: 1) socialist vs. antisocialist, 2) national-conservative vs. universalist-liberal, and 3) populist radical right vs. moderate. These splits do not reflect the real cleavages within the society, so that the party system is unable to integrate the majority of society into the political life. The ideological character of the splits reduces the general coalition potential in the party system. That is why the efficacy of the system can be discussed.
Party system, party politics, hungarian republic, hungary
The article deals with the participation and the membership of the European Community in the international organizations. The article is divided into three parts. The first one is devoted to the introductory notes about the different subjects participating on the work of the international organizations.
In the second part of the essay there is the division of different possibilities the Community can use in order to participate on the international organizations work. The Community can (1.) just cooperate with the international organizations or (2.) became a member of such international organizations or (3.) participate on the work of the international organization in a different way (the observer, the full participant, sole institutional links ...).
The main part of the article describes the legal and political obstacles. There are two kindsof problems. On the side of the Community and on the side of the international organizations. First ones are e.g. the specific nature of the Community institutions, whether the Community law can obey the member states or not, the full or shared competence, which entitles the Community to act independently or with close association with the member states ... The troubles on the side of the international organizations are connected with the supranationality nature of the Community. Consequently, the international organizations where the Community is a member can be devided into two groups. Those established before 1957 and after 1957. Those founded before 1957 have to change their statutes in order to make possible for the Community to join, which causes never ending hurdles.
The conclusion of the article is rather pesimistic. Till now there is no any political will to transfer at least part of the competencies of the member states to the Community. That is the reason why the Community usually has not the same voting rights. Not only this kind of the discrimination leads the author to the point that for the Community point of view should be better to stay in the international organizations as a very strong observer rather than to try to became a very weak member.
European community, international organisation, membership, observer, member
The authors deal with the problem of the development of internal organization of the political parties and movements in the Czech Republic (mostly in the period 1989-1992) and try to trace back its connections to some broad cultural processes in the society. In the first part of the article they mention main theoretical approaches to the problem, research into its characteristic features and look for possibilities to apply them to the Czech case. Nevertheless, they find them inconvenient and propose an approach of their own. In the following parts they describe the abovementioned development, state its fundamental features and divide it into specific phases. Finally, they conclude with the statement the processes concerning the internal organization of the political parties and movements have in certain respect reacted to the development of the society as the whole and express the necessity of the further inquiry into the matter. In some of the future issues of this magazine the article is to continue about the period after 1992.
Party politics, Czech Republic, post-communist, political parties
The paper seeks to reflect upon the issue of polarity in five East-Central European multi-party systems. The number, position and role of major and minor poles is briefly analyzed with respect to their size, composition and origin. The paper argues there are two distinctive major poles in each of the five party arrangements, but their overwhelmingly multi-polar patterns of interactions are enhanced by the operating of minor poles. The Civic Democratic Party and the Czech Social Democratic Party, the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Slovak Democratic Coalition, the Christian Democrat Peasant National Party (the Democratic Convention of Romania) and the Party of Social Democracy in Romania, the Union of Democratic Forces (the United Democratic Forces) and the Bulgarian Socialist Party, the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party of Macedonian National Unity and the Social Democratic Union of Macedonia are identified as the major poles. The Christian and Democratic Union - Czechoslovak People’s Party, the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, the Democratic Left Party, the Slovak National Party, the Hungarian Coalition, the Hungarian Democratic Union in Romania, the Democratic Party (Social Democratic Union), the Movement for Rights and Freedoms, the alliance of the Party for Democratic Prosperity and the Democratic Party of the Albanians are recognized as the minor poles. An attention is also paid to the issue of center and/or peripheral placing of minor poles and to elements of symmetry and/or asymmetry of configuration of poles. In the last part of the paper the reproducing mechanisms and tendencies in developing various forms of polarity are discussed.
The article describes development of Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), characterizes separate stages of its existence and points out to some important, respectively specific events in its actions and history. The article primarily deals with the programme documents which embody its worldview and give expression to its ideologic background; it also explores particular opinions that are mentioned in the documents. In the second part the authors states data concerning the number of party members and explicate the organizational structure of the party and its internal workings as well. In the final part the readers have possibility to find information on the party electorate, its preferences and opinions on the party politics and policies.
ODA, civic Democratic aliance, development, party politics
The article deals with development, structure and characteristic features of the party spectrum in Slovenia from the 1980s. According to traditional and specific “post-communist” (conflict between “old” - former communist - and “new” elite etc.) cleavages which divide Slovenian society operates in Slovenian political system great number of political parties. Only some of them are able to get the seats in parliament, to promote their political programmes and ideas and to influence Slovenian government policy. Such ability have first of all the parties which gained their representation in parliament in 1992 and also in 1996 elections (it means liberal democrats LDS, people’s party SLS, social democrats SDS, christian democrats SKD, nationalists SNS and United List of Social Democrats ZLSD). Slovenian spectrum of political parties is stabilized as an extreme pluralism (after the 1996 election have 7 political subjects representation in parliament), but it works rather like the moderate pluralistic type than the type of polarized pluralism (in Sartori’s typology and classification).
Slovenia, party system, pluralism, moderate pluralism, polarized pluralism, Sartori